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Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus is the third largest island in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) or Northern Cyprus, the de facto independent state located on the northern part of the island of Cyprus 65 km south of the Anatolian peninsula. Independence is not recognized by any country except Turkey. United Nations agencies and the Republic of Cyprus by Turkey and the international community like the European Union is treated as occupied territory.

The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is embargoed by the international community in areas such as economy, transportation and sports. Because of the embargo it has become economically dependent on Turkey. Assets by Turkey during the period of economic, political and military are supported.

As of 2010, 32.6% of the state budget of $ 2.66 billion, will create economic benefits Turkey. However, from 2001 onwards, there has been a rapid growth in the economy, but since the end of the 2000s the country has begun to experience economic difficulties.

- History -

Early Ages
Cyprus, which has been under the rule of many nations throughout its history, came under the dominion of Ancient Egypt around 1500 BC, Hittite around 1320 BC and Egypt again in 1200 BC, Phoenicians around 1000 BC and Assyrians in 709 BC.

Although he gained independence in 669 BC, he was again taken by Egyptian pharaoh Amasis. In 545 BC, the Persian Empire passed through the Empire and autonomy was granted under the sovereignty of Alexander the Great, who defeated the Persians in the Battle of Issus in 333 BC.

After this date Greek culture gained importance in the island. In 58 BC the island became a province of the Roman Empire and remained under Roman Empire control for 350 years. In 395, the people of the island, a part of the Byzantine Empire, gradually moved from Orthodox to the Orthodox sect. In 1919, Lionheart Richard settled in the island during the Third Crusade and later sold the island to the Knights of the Temple. Guy de Lusignan, who bought the island in 1192, and his descendants in 1489, controlled Cypriot until the adoption of the Venetians.

The domination of the Republic of Venice in Cyprus began on 26 February 1489. At that time, the king of Luzinyan, who was the ruler of the island, married a Venetian sovereign named Katerina Kornaro. When the king died, the island remained with the Venetians.

The Venetian who ruled the island was living in Famagusta. During the Venetian period, military importance was given, and fortifications were strengthened, especially in Famagusta. The walls of Nicosia were rebuilt with 8 miles and 3 miles.

Ottoman Period
The historical map created by Piri Reis, a sailor in the Ottoman Empire of Cyprus. Before the conquest, Cyprus became a refuge of Christian pirates who flocked to the Ottoman State's vessels in the Eastern Mediterranean. These pirates usually attack the merchant vessels and passengers going to the hajj to destroy the road safety there. Due to such reasons, it was deemed necessary to take Cyprus.

Cyprus, II. During the reign of Selim, the army under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha and the navy commanded by Piyale Pasha entered the Ottoman administration with the conquest of Famagusta on 1 August 1571 and on August 1, 1570. By the conquest of Cyprus, the Ottoman State was completely dominated by the Eastern Mediterranean. On September 15, 1570, Lala Mustafa Pasha entered the city of Nicosia with a ceremony. At the time Cyprus was conquered, there were very few Orthodox Greeks in the island. Because Venetians were Catholic and did not recognize the right to live in the Orthodox Church. The Ottoman Empire freely opened up the possibility of building and developing churches in the Orthodox. Thus the Orthodox Church developed in the island and the Catholic Church lost its activity.

The population in the census in Cyprus in 1571 was 150,000. The Turkish soldiers here are 30,000 miles. After the Conquest, the Turks who were immigrated to the island from Karaman are the first Turkish residents of the island. Today the Turkish Cypriots living on the island (except from the Republic of Turkey after Cyprus Operation) line comes from the Turkish Ottoman rule it sent to the island.

UK Period
93 Ottoman defeated in the War against the Russian Empire, the island was leased 92,799 sterling at the request of the United Kingdom in order not to make too much concession against the Russians. With Ottoman ownership continuing, the administration went completely to the United Kingdom. Ruled the high-ranking executives of the UK as the so-called "Commissioner". In World War I, which began in 1914, the Ottomans annexed the United Kingdom and appointed the governor of the island upon entering the war with Germany against the United Kingdom. In accordance with Article 21 of the Treaty of Lausanne signed in 1923, it was annexed to the United Kingdom. Cyprus was declared in 1925 as a royal colony and the first candidate was appointed consul of the Republic of Turkey.

From October 1931 onwards, the Greeks were enthusiastic about the Enosis, and the UK's policy became rigid after the Greeks revolted against the British government. The teaching of Greek and Turkish history, the use of the flags of the two countries and the display of pictures of Greek or Turkish national heroes were banned. The Turkish community explained that it was against Enosis. In 1943 the Turkish Cypriot Turkish Minority Authority (KATAK) was established. However, Fazıl, who found KATAK's activity inadequate, left Küçük KATAK and established the Cyprus National Turkish People's Party (KMTHP) on 23 April 1944.

II. As the tendency of the colonies to liquidate after World War II became widespread, the Greek Cypriot Orthodox leadership on October 18, 1950 III. Makarios was chosen. In 1954, the Greek Government applied to the United Nations on the application of the nations' self-determination (self-determination) to Cyprus. This request was rejected by the United Nations opposed by Turkey.

EOKA On April 1, 1955, activity in the island passed. The Enosisist-Anti Enosisist conflict began between the Greeks. Turkey has agreed to become a party issue and for the first time in London on August 29, the United Kingdom and Greece attended the meeting, was represented in Turkey. On November 15, 1957 the Turkish Resistance Organization (TMT) was established. According to the Plan, MacMillan came up in 1958 to remain within the British Commonwealth of Cyprus, but Turkey and Greece also decided to have the bond.

1960 to 1974
In the Republic of Cyprus, established in 1960, both communities had the right to adequate representation in every institution, according to their influence. But the president of the Republic of Cyprus III. Makarios presented the constitutional amendment proposals consisting of 13 items on November 30, 1963. Among these were the irrevocable elements of the Constitution, the abolition of the veto power of the Vice President of the Turkish Cypriot, the removal of the separate majority rule in the House of Representatives by simple majority, the removal of separate municipalities.

US President Kennedy proposed the Makarios and Turkey reported that abandonment would not accept the changes. On the rejection of the Turkish Cypriots, the Greek Cypriots launched an island-wide massacre against the Turkish Cypriots on December 21, 1963. According to the Akritas Plan published on April 21, 1966 in the Patris newspaper, the Turkish people will be intimidated and connected to the island of Greece.

In 1967 the Greek attacks began again. The Greek Army's 15,000 troops were unofficially placed on the island. to stop the continuing intimidation against the Turks in Turkey and Greece proved inconclusive, organized a meeting between the prime minister announced that Turkey would no military intervention.

The Turkish Grand National Assembly gave authority to intervene in the government. Turkish planes began flying over Cyprus. Navy and extraction troops moved on. Greece established the withdrawal of US troops with mediation by, Turkey has stopped operations. While Greece's soldiers retreated from three Turkish villages, 24 were left behind. Since 1964, Rauf Denktas went secretly nominated in Turkey. Denktash, the Greeks were arrested but were returned on Turkey and the US objection.

The military junta that controlled Greece at the beginning of the 1970s, II. He was not satisfied with Makarios' attitudes and his lack of progress towards enosis. On July 15, 1974, the junta demanded that the Cypriot National Guard be removed from the position of the commander of this union, and that the control of the island should take this union of Greek officers. On the same day the union pressed the Presidential Palace in Nicosia, Makarios was removed from the post. Nikos Sampson was declared to be the president of the new government. Although the coup by the nationalist Greek Cypriots did not unite with Greece, Cyprus continued its independence and was not a dependent government. Republic of Turkey, due to the coup carried Zurich and London Treaty IV. on July 20, 1974, he commenced operations in Cyprus from land and air. Shortly after the Turkish troops landed on the island, they entered Girne, one of the great cities of the island. The capital began to move towards Nicosia. As a result of the attack on July 22, Turkish troops entered Kyrenia first, then headed for capital Nicosia. Girne-Nicosia fleet merged with the ceasefire.

Even though a temporary ceasefire was declared, the Turkish troops began to progress again on August 13, when the Greek troops did not comply with these ceasefire rules. Turkish troops entered Lefkoşa on August 14 and Lefke and Famagusta on August 15. As a result of international pressure, a ceasefire was declared and 37% of the island was under the control of the Turks. 170,000 Greek Cypriots from the north who were moved around the house, while 50,000 Turkish Cypriots and later immigrants from Turkey and Turkey's promotion were placed in these homes.

The declaration of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Turkish Cypriot Federated State was established in 1976 after Cyprus Operation.

On November 15, 1983, the Assembly of the Turkish Cypriot Federative State declared the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus with a unanimous decision, using the right to self-determination. Founding President Rauf Denktas read the establishment declaration of TRNC. The establishment of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, the Republic of Cyprus, Greece and many other states, as well as the United Nations Security Council has also reacted.

The Security Council condemned the decision of independence on November 18th. On May 13, 1984, the Security Council declared the declaration of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as a separatist movement with its decision numbered 550.

Negotiations and Search for Solutions
Since the Cyprus issue has entered the world's agenda, a number of activities have been carried out with the unification of the island, especially the work of the United Nations. But no results were obtained from them. The referendum on the 2004 Annan Plan, which is one of them, has not been realized with the "acceptance" of the Turkish Cypriots and the "no" of the Greeks. On May 1, 2004, the Republic of Cyprus entered the European Union, representing the entire island.

- Geography -

Their territory spreads to Dipkarpaz in the north, Güzelyurt in the west and Akıncilar in the south. Between the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the territory of the Republic of Cyprus there is a buffer zone under the control of the United Nations.

The important settlements of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are the capital Nicosia, Girne, Famagusta, Güzelyurt and Iskele. The TRNC does not receive much rainfall due to its Mediterranean climate. It is usually warm and dry.

The coastal coasts of Cyprus are being visited by Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta turtles, which are about a hundred million years old. They come to the shores of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus between May and August to lay eggs. There are natural caves in the north of Adan. There are 85 natural caves, including stalactites and stalagmites, İncirli Cave, and İnversal Cave.

- Language -

The official language is Turkish. However, Cyprus is the language spoken by the mouth of the people of Turkey Turkish. Latin letters are used in the writing language since 1940s. There are some words in the mouth of Cyprus with Turkey in Turkish means unused or different. For example, pedal and paste (jam).